The 2019 population density in Mexico is 66 people per Km 2 (170 people per mi 2), calculated on a total land area of 1,943,950 Km2 (750,563 sq. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature, the Chihuahuan Desert may be the most biologically diverse desert in the world, whether measured on species richness or endemism, although the region has been heavily degraded over time. An archeological site in northern Chihuahua known as Cerro Juanaqueña revealed squash cultivation, irrigation techniques, and ceramic artifacts dating to around 2000 BC.[13]. 321) and the stage station called "La Despedida" (Bolívar and 10a walk) On April 23, the service between Chihuahua and Rosales was inaugurated and in August 1877 with Mexico City. After running imperial military affairs in the states of Coahuila and Durango, General Agustín Enrique Brincourt made preparations to invade the state of Chihuahua. The mining industry is a small but continues to produce large amounts of minerals. The first person elected under the new constitution of 1825 was Simón Elías González, who being in Sonora, was induced to remain there. Finally, in 1920, Obregón—who had defeated him at Celaya—finally reached an agreement with Villa end his rebellion. [17] In 1914, General Francisco Villa had a radiotelegraph station set up in the city of Chihuahua, which was the first to work. Peace returned to Chihuahua and the new government was led by Governor Antonio Ochoa (formerly a co-owner of the Batopilas silver mines) in 1873 after Luis Terrazas finished his term in 1872. From 1920 onwards the reconstruction of the economy began, re-emerging some important factories of the porphyriate era that had closed on the occasion of the revolution. The first stone was laid on September 26, 1948 by the Secretary of Public Education, Mr. Manuel Guel Vidal and by the constitutional governor of the State of Chihuahua, Mr. Fernando Foglio Miramontes. The pronounced rainy season in the steppe is usually observed in the months of July, August, and September. There are some microclimates in the state due to the varying topology mostly found in the western side of the state. Similar to the rest of the country, small businesses continue to be the foundation of the state’s economy. The legitimate authorities reinsettled in their official residence on 14 August of the same year. By 1888 the telephone services were extended from the capital to the cities of Julimes, Meoqui, and Hidalgo del Parral; the telecommunication network in the state covered an estimated 3,500 kilometers. [26] Santa Anna ordered the reinstatement of Mendarozqueta as comandante general. Borunda is crossed in the west by the Periferico de la Juventud, a major limited-access highway running north-and-south. natural history museum and contains 13 halls detailing prehistoric life from the dinosaurs through the reign of the mammals, or the Cenozoic Era. [19] The remains of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla lie in the column of the Angel of Independence in Mexico City. At the expense of the working class, the Díaz administration promoted economic growth by encouraging investment from foreign companies from the United Kingdom, France, Imperial Germany and the United States. The word "Chihuahua" (both the name of the state and the capital city) translates "Lady of the Desert." Chihuahua is large and prosperous capital in the centre of the state of Chihuahua in Northern Mexico.It has a population of about 925,970 and the predominant activity is light industry. [16] The angel has a sword with a laser light at the tip, and is capable of rotating 360° over its axis. Brincourt designated Tomás Zuloaga as Prefect of Chihuahua. At the same time, radio-receiver devices, which were popularly referred to as "radiolas", began to be installed in homes. The state economy grew at a rapid pace during the Porfiriato; the economy in Chihuahua was dominated by agriculture and mining. When the Spanish explorers reached this area they found their descendants, Suma and Manso tribes. In 1709, Antonio de Deza y Ulloa founded the state capital Chihuahua City; shortly after, the city became the headquarters for the regional mining offices of the Spanish crown known as 'Real de Minas de San Francisco de Cuéllar' in honor of the Viceroy of New Spain, Francisco Fernández de la Cueva Enríquez, Duke of Alburquerque and the Marquee of Cuéllar. Since 2005, the International Festivals of Chihuahua have been celebrated by both the state and city governments during the months of September/October with art shows, plays, stage presentations and concerts by such bands as America, Foreigner, Creedence and Los Lobos being held at venues throughout the city. [66] Manufacturing sector was the principal foreign investment in the state followed by the mining sector. It is in this year that the state is in the crosshairs of the whole country. The second most populated county is Chihuahua County, with a population of 819,543 inhabitants, comprised of 399,495 men and 420,048 women, respectively. The American forces maintained control over the state capital for three months after the confirmation of the peace treaty. It remained until August 5, 1865, when it took the northern way; returned to the capital on 20 November and returned to the border on 9 December. The American forces engaged with the Mexican forces near Santa Cruz de los Rosales on March 16, 1848. Chihuahua adopted the Plan of Cuernavaca in July 1834 while President Valentín Gómez Farías was in power. His deputy, Lic. Compared to most of Mexico, the state has a higher percentage of Protestants.[58]. The northern portion of the state continued to decline economically which led to another revolt led by G. Casavantes in August 1879; Governor Trías was accused of misappropriation of funds and inefficient administration of the state. [42], The uneasy alliance of Carranza, Obregón, Villa, and Zapata eventually led the rebels to victory. In 1990, construction began on the Children's Complex called Chihuahua 2000, which houses nearly 10,000 families. The term-appointed surrogate, Manuel de Herrera, dispatched successively in Cusihuiriachi, Guerrero and Camargo, raised the national guard and joined the government troops. At his execution, Hidalgo placed his right hand over his heart to show the riflemen where they should aim. Jailed in Mexico City, Villa fled to the United States. In coordination with the private initiative, through the newly created Economic Development of Chihuahua, A.D., on September 12, 1980, the state government created the promoter of the Chihuahuense Industry that immediately proceeds to the construction of the Complex Industrial Chihuahua with the Ford plant as an anchor industry; which would subsequently attract new foreign investment and strengthen confidence to establish itself in the region. For the defense of Chihuahua, the Battle of Sacramento, on February 28, 1847, was enlisted with the invaders, with the full defeat of Mexican forces dispersed, the state government moved to Parral and March 1 the U.S. military occupied the city. [23] Shortly after gaining independence, the day to celebrate it varied between September 16, the day of Hidalgo's Grito, and September 27, the day Iturbide rode into Mexico City to end the war. Several species of Juniperus dot the steppe and the transition zone. [12] Her term started on October 10, 2016, and is expected to last for two years, with the possibility of reelection for three more years.[13]. In fact, Ciudad Juárez is one of the fastest growing cities in the world in spite of the fact that it is "the most violent zone in the world outside of declared war zones". In response, the Juárez administration took drastic measures by temporarily suspending constitutional rights, but the governor of Chihuahua did not support this action. Population Projection (P) 2019-07-01; 1: Ciudad Juárez: 1,460,200: 2: Chihuahua: 932,600: 3: … The Díaz administration made political decisions and took legal measures that allowed the elite throughout Mexico to concentrate the nation's wealth by favoring monopolies. Winters are mild with an average daytime temperature of 18.1 °C (64.6 °F) and an average minimum temperature of 2 °C (35.6 °F) in January, the coldest month. Chihuahua ranked second in Mexico for zinc at 150,211 metric tons, silver at 580,271 kg, and gold at 15,221.8 kg. In 1923 Villa was assassinated by a group of seven gunmen who ambushed him while he was sitting in the back seat of his car in Parral. At the Battle of Parral, the French lost 55 men to the Republican forces. Francisco I. Madero, visits for the second time the city, having made the trip expressly to invite the Chihuahuenses revolutionary chiefs Abraham González, Pascual Orozco, José de la Luz Blanco, José de la Luz Soto, Máximo Castillo and others, to accompany at the event of their protest as the holder of the Federal Executive. The absence of servants and workers forged the spirit of northern people as self-dependent, creative people that defended their European heritage. Gutiérrez yielded, but Escalante refused to surrender office, demonstrations of support ensued, but Escalante yielded when troops were summoned from Zacatecas. [60] For instance, a few years ago the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas published that in Ciudad Juárez "the average annual growth over the 10-year period 1990–2000 was 5.3 percent. But the peace in the state did not last long, the elections of 1875 caused new hostilities. Except for mining, industrial activity had not been a substance in the local economy, but from 1947, with the opening of Cementos de Chihuahua, a significant change was initiated in the industry, which was accentuated in 1960 with the establishment of maquiladoras export in the cities of Juarez and Tijuana first, and then in Chihuahua. The steppe zone is an important agriculture zone due to an extensive development of canals exploiting several rivers that flow down from the mountains. In 1911, the city was held by the "rises" under the command of Pascual Orozco. The origin of the city of Chihuahua begins with the discovery of the nearby mines and foundation of the population of Santa Eulalia in 1652 by Spanish captain Diego del Castillo, however; due to the climate and constant attacks of the indigenous people the exploitation was suspended and Santa Eulalia remained several years uninhabited. Hacienda Corralitos Map - Chihuahua, Mexico - Mapcarta It is thought that these inhabitants were hunter gatherers. The report published by the Directorate General of Statistics gave the city of Chihuahua, in 1895, the number of 19,520 people. During the War of Independence, the city saw little action. In early 1931, the first lines of urban and semi-urban trucks began to circulate through the streets of the city. [citation needed], As of 2007[update], the state's economy employed 786,758 people, which accounted for 3.9% of the country's workforce with annual GDP per capita of 136,417 pesos (12,338 dollars). It is thought that these inhabitants were hunter gatherers. Population The population of Chihuahua, Mexico is 809232 according to the GeoNames geographical database. The wages paid by industries to management and high-level technical employees provide a cash flow unlike that of most Mexican cities. Next to it is a lamp lit to represent the sacrifice of those who gave their lives for Mexican Independence. There are more than 406 companies operating under the federal IMMEX or Prosec program in Chihuahua. During the 1880s, the Díaz administration consolidated several government agencies throughout Mexico to control credit and currency by the creation of the Institution of Credit and Currency. In Chihuahua, all of the victims were shot and killed in city streets. Chihuahua has two sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International:[39]. Chihuahua is famous for norteño food (rather similar to Tex-Mex), a delicious and healthy cuisine that makes liberal use of beef, cheese, and chiles. Antonio Ochoa, prisoner. [67] In 2011, the state received approximately 884 million dollars in remittances from the United States, which was 4.5% of all remittances from the United States to Mexico. The predominant activity is industry, including domestic heavy, light industries, consumer goods production, and to a smaller extent maquiladoras. The most common species of flora found in the mountains are: Pinus, Quercus, Abies, Ficus, Vachellia, Ipomoea, Acacia, Lysiloma, Bursera, Vitex, Tabebuia, Sideroxylon, Cordia, Fouquieria, Pithecellobium. Cierre del peso mexicano", "Prevencion de Incendios Forestales en Chihuahua", Sección en INEGI Estado Chihuahua, municipio Hidalgo del Parral, localidad 0001 Enero 7 2007, "Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI) - 'Archivo Histórico de Localidades, "French intervention and the Second Mexican Empire 1864–1867", Pascual Orozco : Faces of the Revolution : The Storm That Swept Mexico : PBS, "Who Was Venustiano Carranza, Revolutionary President of Mexico? In 1631 Juan Rangel de Biezma discovered a rich vein of silver and subsequently established San José del Parral near the site. About 20 miles (32 km) north of the capital where two mountain ranges join from east to west is the only pass into the capital; known as Sacramento Pass, this point is now part of present-day Chihuahua City. In 2004 Juan Blanco Zaldívar, of the National Action Party (PAN), won the election for mayor (municipal president) of the city for the term 2004–2007. It was quickly dissolved by Governor Santiago de Baca Ortiz, who replaced it with a more pronounced Yorkino type. Those aged 5 years and older claim to be the following religious beliefs: 84.6% are Catholic; 7.1% are Protestant; 2.0% are Nondenominational; 5.1% are Atheist. The steppe zone accounts for a third of the state's area, and it experiences pronounced dry and wet seasons. Between 1586 and 1588 an epidemic caused a temporary exodus of the small population in the territory of Nueva Vizcaya. This provision began to govern from 1 January 1912, and since then, each municipality is administered by a popularly elected municipality, without any dependence on the others, whose presidents are directly understood with the governor of the state, there should be no intermediate authority among them. The state government is divided into three branches: the legislative branch, the judicial branch, and the executive branch. In the mountain zone of the state the most observed mammals are: Mexican fox squirrel (Sciurus nayaritensis), antelope jackrabbit (Lepus alleni), raccoon (Procyon lotor), hooded skunk (Mephitis macroura), wild boar (Sus scrofa), collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer Odocoileus hemionus, American bison Bison bison, cougar (Puma concolor), eastern cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus, North American porcupine Erethizon dorsatum, bobcat Lynx rufus, Mexican wolf Canis lupus baileyi, and coyote Canis latrans. It has been said that the name derives from the Nahuatl language, meaning "between two waters", other accepted definitions are "place of the holed-rock" "[5] or from Tarahumara, "dry and sandy place". The city of Chihuahua has a number of tourist sites, including the museums in Chihuahua, the baroque Metropolitan Cathedral, seat of the Archdiocese (and the resting place of St Peter of Jesus Maldonado, a Cristero martyr of the 1930s), dating from the 18th century, the Government Palace from the early 19th century, and the City Hall from the turn of the 20th century, on the Plaza de Armas across from the cathedral. Agriculture is a relatively small component of the state's economy and varies greatly due to the varying climate across the state. The bishop was Don Adalberto Almeida and Merino and threatened not to officiate Mass due to the alleged electoral fraud. On May 24, 1988, the city of Chihuahua was about to experience a catastrophe of incalculable dimensions when, at 10:10 a.m., the No. There are more than 350 established manufacturing and assembly plants in the state; manufacturing accounts for a third of the total GSP, while trade and other services amount to 53.5%. Afternoon storms are common during the monsoon season and they can be accompanied with hail and thunderstorms. The state ranked first place in the country for the production of lead with 53,169 metric tons. This mountainous interior features deep and steep valleys, formed by major rivers running through it. According to the Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática (INEGI), 95.6% of the population over the age of 15 could read and write Spanish, and 97.3% of children of ages 8–14 could read and write Spanish. On July 20, Governor Elorriaga was reinstated, and Baca along with the legislative minority were brought back to form a new legislature, which met on September 1. American black bear Ursus americanus is also found but in very small numbers. Maximilian was executed by firing squad on June 19, 1867. In recent years, gated residential zones called "fraccionamientos", along with colonias, have been erected. After nearly a year of pursuing Villa, American forces returned to the United States. It is believed that there is a large number of undocumented immigrants in that state the come from Central and South America which mainly settle in Ciudad Juárez. Trías took the opportunity to dedicate important state resources to gain economic concessions from the people and loans from many municipalities in preparation to defend the state; he used all the money he received to equip and organize a large volunteer militia. Supplies of weapons were sent to fully equip the military and steps were taken to improve efficiency at the presidios. Inhabitants of the state later developed farming with the domestication of corn. The American presence served to delay the possible succession of the state which had been discussed at the end of 1847, and the state remained under United States occupation until May 22, 1848. Understand []. [2], Among cities in Mexico, the city of Chihuahua is highly ranked in human and social development. Duke of Alburquerque and Marquis de Cuéllar. Cuauhtémoc (Spanish pronunciation: [kwawˈtemok]) is a city located in the west-central part of the Mexican state of Chihuahua.It serves as the seat of the municipality of Cuauhtémoc.The city lies 103 km (64 mi) west of the state capital of Chihuahua.As of 2015, the city of Cuauhtémoc had a population of 168,482. Also, drug-related murders, including murders of law-enforcement officers (38 in 2007 according to a March 2008 issue of the newspaper Diario de Chihuahua) by traffickers led by Joaquín Guzmán Loera ("el Chapo", or "Shorty"), have been on the rise. The distance of the French forces and their allies allowed the Ministry of War, led by General Negrete, to reorganize the state's national guard into the Patriotic Battalion of Chihuahua, which was deployed to fight in the battle of Matamoros, Tamaulipas against the French. [44] It was known as the Punitive Expedition. The turnout of registered voters, at about 41%, was the lowest in years. [23] Frosts are common during winter nights. Estimated 12.8% of residents of the state have obtained a college degree. Delicias is a small industrial city and a major agricultural center located in the Conchos River Valley. Today, Chihuahua serves as an important commercial route prospering from billions of dollars from international trade as a result of NAFTA. [6] The town was erected a Villa in 1718 (or 1715)[1] with the name of San Felipe el Real de Chihuahua, and the name was shortened in 1823. The third-largest group was the "pure indigenous" population, constituting 12.76% of the population. On May 5, 1881, the first telephone line was inaugurated by Félix Francisco Maceyra, manager of Banco Mexicano. By the end of the Terrazas term, the state experienced an increase in commerce, mining, and banking. Ángel Trías took measures for state self-dependence in regards to state militia due to the diminishing financial support from the federal government.[26]. La Quinta Luz was turned into a museum by his widow, Sra. The civil and military authorities were now headed by J. The government is centrally located in the state capital Chihuahua City. The state has one city with a population exceeding one million: Ciudad Juárez. The city's first telegraphist was named Francisco Hernández. The military entered as a third party. According to Köppen climate classification the state has five major climate zones. During the Mexican–American War, Chihuahua fell to U.S. forces in 1847, after the Mexican Army was defeated at the Battle of the Sacramento, 15 miles (24 km) north of the city. Manufacturing is very important and there are nine major industrial parks and 79 maquila manufacturing plants, which employ about 45,000 people. [35] During the campaign Díaz incarcerated Madero on election day in 1910. They are a largely insular community that speaks a form of German and wear traditional clothing. Cajen took possession of the state capital and established himself as governor; he brooked no delay in uniting a large force to combat the liberal forces which he defeated in La Batalla del Gallo. On May 5, 1862, Don Mariano Sáenz built at his expense the first building specifically intended for theater, was called "Teatro de Zaragoza", was located in the street of La Libertad, near the current Plaza de Merino and premiered with the play "Los French in Mexico." upon the Plaza Hidalgo in the downtown, and catter-cornered from the Plaza Mayor. In January, 2010, Mayor Carlos Borruel submitted his resignation in order to campaign for election to the office of Governor of Chihuahua. It was then ratified in the United States on April 25, 1854 and signed by President Franklin Pierce, with final approval action taken by Mexico on June 8, 1854. Archaeologists believe the civilization began to decline during the 13th century and by the 15th century the inhabitants of Paquimé sought refuge in the Sierra Madre Occidental while others are thought to have emigrated north and joined the Ancestral Pueblo peoples. Hacienda Corralitos is situated west of La Wanda. It is also the midpoint between the Río Bravo del Norte (Rio Grande) and the then-important mining city of Hidalgo del Parral. Covering an area of 244,938 square kilometers, Chihuahua is Mexico's largest state. In December 1923, the first radio-telephone station was installed that operated in the city, by agreement of the governor of the state, General Ignacio C. Enríquez and had the official record "XICE". The federal government was successful in quelling rebellions in Durango an Chihuahua. Asian immigrants soon become integral to the state economy by opening restaurants, small grocery stores, and hotels. [2] while the metropolitan area had a population of 1,036,806 inhabitants. The Spanish society that developed in the region replaced the sparse population of indigenous peoples. During the 1990s the city grew dramatically economically, becoming the third wealthiest municipality (per capita) in the republic, after Benito Juárez borough of the Federal District (Mexico City), and San Pedro Garza García in Nuevo León. An archeological site in northern Chihuahua known as Cerro Juanaqueña revealed squash cultivation, irrigation techniques, and Answer: Chihuahua, Mexico (capital: Chihuahua) - last known population is ≈ 3 673 300 (year 2014). During the stage of the Revolution, Chihuahua was the scene of the wood movement and, later, the development of Constitutionalism and Villismo, highlighting the heroic figures of Praxedis G. 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